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MEMO on precautions to reduce the risk of coronavirus infection and maintain personal and public hygiene

I. General information

Virus information

Coronavirus is a type of virus. As a group, coronaviruses are spread throughout the world. COVID-19 is a new strain of coronavirus first detected in the Chinese city of Wuhan in January 2020.

The incubation period of COVID-19 is from 2 to 14 days. This means that if a person feels well 14 days after contact with someone with confirmed coronavirus, they are not infected.

Signs and symptoms of COVID-19

After exposure to an infected COVID-19 person for 14 days, the following symptoms may occur:

  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
  • Fever

Generally, these infections can cause more severe symptoms in people with compromised immune systems, the elderly, and people with chronic conditions such as diabetes, cancer, and chronic lung disease.

What are the complications?

Viral pneumonia is the leading complication. The deterioration of viral pneumonia is rapid, and many patients have already developed respiratory failure within 24 hours, requiring immediate respiratory support with artificial ventilation.

Treatment started at that time helps to alleviate the severity of the disease.

How COVID-19 spreads

What we know about other coronaviruses, the spread of COVID-19 probably occurs in close contact (less than 2 meters) with an infected person. The risk likely increases the longer someone is in close contact with an infected person.

Respiratory secretions produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes, which contain the virus, are most likely the main means of spreading the disease.

Two main ways COVID-19 spreads:

  • The infection can be spread to a person who is in close contact with an infected person (within 2 meters) or possibly caught in the lungs.
  • It is also possible that someone can become infected by touching the surface, object, or hand of an infected person infected with respiratory secretions and then touching their mouth, nose, or eye (for example, by touching a doorknob or shaking hands and then touching their face).

The virus lives on the surface for more than 72 hours.

There is currently little evidence that people who do not have symptoms are contagious to others.

How long the virus can survive

The survival of any respiratory virus will depend on several factors such as:

  • What surface the virus is on
  • Whether it is exposed to sunlight
  • Changes in temperature and humidity
  • Exposure to detergents

In most cases, the amount of virus on any contaminated surfaces is likely to decrease significantly within 72 hours.

Once these viruses get their hands on it, they survive for a very short time. Regular cleaning of hard surfaces and hands will help reduce the risk of infection.

II. Measures

  • Wash your hands regularly.
  • Regularly treat your hands with alcohol or wash them with soap and water.

Why do you do it? If there is a virus on the surface of your hands, treating your hands with alcohol or washing them with soap will kill it.

Follow the rules of respiratory hygiene.

When coughing and sneezing, cover your mouth and nose with a napkin or elbow; immediately throw the napkin in the trash with a lid and treat your hands with an alcohol-based antiseptic or wash them with soap and water.

Why did you do it? Covering your mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing prevent the spread of viruses and other pathogens. If you cough or sneeze with your hand over your nose and mouth, germs can fall onto your hands and then onto objects or people you touch.

Keep your distance in public.

Stay at least 1 meter away from people, especially if they have a cough, runny nose, and fever.

Why did you do it? By coughing or sneezing, a person who has a respiratory infection such as COVID-19 spreads small droplets containing the virus around them. If you are too close to such a person, you can catch the virus by breathing in the air.

If possible, avoid touching your hands, nose, and mouth.

Why do you do it? Hands touch many surfaces on which the virus may be present. By touching hands that may contain infections for the eyes, nose, or mouth, the virus can be transmitted from the skin of the hands to the body.

If you develop fever, cough, and shortness of breath, seek medical attention as soon as possible.

If you have visited countries where COVID-19 has been diagnosed or have been in close contact with someone who has symptoms of respiratory illness after traveling to such countries, please inform your healthcare provider.

Why did you do it? Fever, cough, and shortness of breath require immediate medical attention as they may be caused by a respiratory infection or other serious illness. Respiratory symptoms combined with fever can have a wide range of causes, which may be COVID-19 depending on the patient's travel and contacts.

If you have mild respiratory symptoms and have not visited countries where COVID-19 cases have been detected

If you have mild respiratory symptoms and have not traveled to countries where COVID-19 cases have been detected, you should carefully follow basic breathing and hand hygiene practices and, if possible, stay home until you recover.
As a general measure, follow the usual hygiene rules when visiting food markets that sell live animals, meat and poultry, or other animal products.

After touching animals or animal products, wash your hands regularly with clean soap and water; Do not touch your hands, nose, or mouth; Avoid contact with sick animals and do not touch spoiled animal products. Strictly avoid contact with other animals at the market (stray cats or dogs, rodents, birds, bats). Avoid contact with potentially contaminated waste or animal fluids on the floor or other surfaces in shops or market stalls.

Do not eat raw or unpredictable products of animal origin

Following food safety regulations, special precautions should be taken when handling raw meat, milk, or animal organs to avoid cross-contamination with foods that have not been heating treated.

How to wear a medical mask?

Medical masks can have different designs. They can be disposable or can be used several times. There are medical masks that serve 2, 4, and 6:00. The cost of these masks is different, due to different delays. But you cannot wear the same mask all the time, so you can infect yourself twice. It doesn't matter which way you wear the medical mask.

To protect yourself from infection, it is extremely important to wear it:

  • The mask should be gently fixed, and close your mouth and nose tightly, leaving no gaps;
  • Do not touch the surfaces of the mask when removing it if
  • Touchable, wash hands thoroughly with soap and water or alcohol;
  • Humidity or wet masks should be replaced with new, dry ones;
  • Do not use a reusable disposable mask;

The disposable medical mask used should be disposed of immediately. When caring for a patient, after contact with the patient, the medical mask should be removed immediately. After removing the mask, wash your hands immediately and thoroughly.

The mask is suitable if you are in a crowded place, on public transport, and in nursing rooms, but it is inappropriate outdoors.

Being outdoors, it is useful to breathe fresh air, so you should not wear a mask.

At the same time, doctors remind that this single measure does not provide complete protection against the disease. In addition to wearing a mask, other preventive measures should be taken.

The workplace should have additional breaks in the work schedule for ventilation and constant disinfection of premises.

Appendix 1

For those who have to be from the world Given the recent cases of COVID-19 reported from the country, or have recent contact with patients with COVID-19

(Memo on self-isolation)

Stay at home

You or the person you care for should stay in your home, except for medical care. Do not go to work, school, or public places, but do not use public transport or taxis until you are told it is safe to do so. You will need to ask for help if you need groceries, other purchases, or medicines. You can also order by phone or online. Delivery instructions should indicate that items should be left outside, on the porch, or outside your home.

Separate yourself from other people in your home

You should be in a well-ventilated room with a window to the outside that can be opened separately from other people in your home. Keep the door closed. Use a private bathroom if possible. If you have shared things, you will need to clean regularly.

If a private bathroom is not available, consider using a shared bathroom so that the isolated person can use the bathroom before thoroughly cleaning the bathroom (if possible or appropriate). Make sure the isolated person uses separate towels, such as bath and hand hygiene.

If you live in a shared living room (university dormitories, etc.) with a shared kitchen, bathroom (links), and living room, you should stay in your room with the door closed, based only on whether or not you need to, wear a face mask if one is issued to you.

If you share a kitchen with other people (e.g. university halls, etc.), avoid being there when others are present if possible. If this is not possible, wear a face mask if you have been given one. Take food with you to your room to eat. Use a dishwasher (if available) to clean and dry used dishes and cutlery. If not, wash them by hand using detergent and warm water and dry them thoroughly with a separate towel.

If these recommendations cannot be followed, insulation of the house should be avoided.

Call in advance before you visit your doctor

All doctor visits must be arranged in advance with your doctor using the number you have provided. This is to ensure that the hospital takes steps to minimize contact with other people.

Wear a face mask if recommended

If you have been provided with face masks, you must wear the mask when you are in the same room with other people and when you attend medical care. If you cannot wear a face mask, people who live with you should wear one while they are in the same room as you.

Cover yourself when coughing and sneezing

Cover your mouth and nose with a disposable tissue when coughing or sneezing. Caregivers who are being tested for 2019-nSV infection should use a disposable tissue to wipe mucus or phlegm after they spit or cough.

Throw the cloth into a plastic garbage bag and immediately wash hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, rinse thoroughly, and dry. Caregivers should wash their hands as well as help the person they are caring for after coughing or sneezing.

Wash your hands

Wash your hands or help the person you care for wash their hands. This should be done frequently and gently with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, rinse thoroughly and dry. The same applies to those who care for those who are tested for SARS-CoV-2. Do not touch your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.

Avoid sharing household items

You should not share dishes, glasses, cups, utensils, towels, laundry, or other items with other people in your home if you have used them (or after your child or the person you are caring for has used them). After using these items, wash them thoroughly with soap and water; dishwashers can be used to wash dishes and cutlery.

Bed linen and towels should be placed in a plastic bag and washed as soon as it is known that the SARS-CV-2 tests are negative.

Keep an eye on your symptoms (or the person you are caring for, respectively)

Seek medical attention quickly if your illness worsens, for example, if you have difficulty breathing or it is observed by the person you are caring for worsening. If it is not an emergency, you should call the named medical contact, quoting the number you were given.

If it is an emergency and you need to call an ambulance, tell the operator that you are taking the SARS-CoV-2 test (or you are caring for someone who has been tested for SARS-CoV-2 as appropriate).

Don't take visitors home

Those who live in your home may be in the house. Do not invite or let visitors in. If you think you need to visit someone, discuss it with your doctor first.


All waste from an infected person, including the use of tissues and masks when used, should be done in a plastic garbage bag and tied when full. The plastic bag should be placed in another garbage bag and tied.

If the individual test is positive, you are told what to do with the waste.


Hand hygiene treatment after any contact with the patient or their immediate environment. Hand hygiene should also be used before and after food preparation, before eating, after toileting, and whenever hands look dirty. If there is no visible contamination on the hands, alcohol-based wipes can be used. Use hand hygiene with soap and water when your hands are visibly dirty. Address safety concerns (e.g., timing and potential for fire) before recommending alcohol-based hand rubs for home use

When using soap and water, it is advisable to use disposable paper hand towels. If not, use individual cloth towels and replace them when they become wet.

Appendix 2


During any epidemic, people usually experience stress and anxiety.

Typical for most people, affected reactions (both directly and indirectly) may include:

  • Fear of getting sick and dying;
  • Avoid going to medical facilities for fear of infection;
  • Fear of losing livelihood without the ability to work in isolation and stay at work;
  • Fear of social rejection or quarantine due to the disease (e.g. discrimination against people who come from or are perceived to come from affected areas);
  • Feeling powerless to protect loved ones and fear of losing loved ones to the virus;
  • Fear of being separated from loved ones due to quarantine;
  • Refusal to care for minors, minors or the elderly for fear of infection because parents or guardians have been quarantined;
  • Feelings of helplessness, boredom, loneliness, and depression as a result of isolation
  • Fear of reliving the experience of previous epidemics

Emergencies are always stressful, but specific features of stress that affect the characteristics of the COVID-19 population are:

  • The risk of infection and infecting others, especially the specifics of COVID-19 transmission, is not 100% understood;
  • Common symptoms of other health problems (e.g. fever) may be mistaken as COVID-19 and cause fear of infection;
  • Parents may feel more anxious that children are home alone (due to school closures) without adequate care and support;
  • Risk of physical and mental abuse of vulnerable groups, such as the elderly and disabled, if their caregivers are quarantined and without help and support

(с) 2024

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