RULES FOR PREPARING FOR BLOOD TESTS
The main factors that can affect the outcome of the blood test:
Medications: the effect on laboratory results from them can be different and not always predictable. : to cause biochemical and hormonal changes. Before the study, it is necessary to check with the doctor the optimal days for taking a sample to determine the level of folliculostatic hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, progesterone, estradiol. Fluctuations in different biochemical and hormonal parameters are expressed to a greater or lesser extent; reference values (borders of "norms") usually reflect the statistics obtained when taking blood in the morning under standard conditions.
General rules in preparation for the study:
It is necessary to donate blood in the morning, on an empty stomach (8 to 14 hours without food, water can be drunk as usual), 24 hours before the analysis should avoid congestion in food. If you take any medications, you should consult your doctor about the appropriateness of conducting a study on the background of taking drugs or the possibility of withdrawal of the drug before the study. Exclude alcohol use on the eve of the study. Do not smoke for 1 hour or more before the test. Eliminate physical and emotional stress on the eve of the study. After coming to the medical laboratory it is recommended to rest for 10-15 minutes before taking blood samples. It is undesirable to donate blood for laboratory testing shortly after physiotherapy procedures, X-ray examinations and other medical procedures. Children under 5 years of age, before donating blood, it is desirable to water boiled water (portions up to 200 ml, for 30 minutes). For children breastfed, the maximum possible pause between feeding should be saved before donating blood. When monitoring laboratory indicators in dynamics, re-examinations are recommended in the same conditions: in the same laboratory, at the same time of day, etc.
Minimum requirements: infectious tests, emergency tests should be carried out on an empty stomach (4-6 hours). The glucose-tolerant test is performed on an empty stomach in the morning after 8-14 hours of fasting. It should be remembered that in studies for the presence of infections, depending on the immune status of the patient and the infectious period, may be obtained a negative result, which, nevertheless, does not completely eliminate the presence of infection. In dubious cases, it is recommended to conduct the analysis again.
Additional preparation recommendations:
Prolactin: after sleep should take no more than 2 hours, blood pass in the morning alone, before the study excludes breast palpation.Testosterone: blood selection should be carried out before 10:00 am (due to daily biorhythm).
It is recommended to abstain from sexual intercourse for 5-7 days before the start of the study; After a mechanical exposure to the prostate, before taking a blood test for PSA, it is advisable to wait at least 2 weeks, and after a prostate biopsy - at least a month.
Protrombin Index (PTI):
Re-donation of blood for PTI study should be carried out at the same time; Patients who take hormonal drugs should not disrupt the schedule of admission on the day of delivery, unless there are special recommendations of the doctor.
FECES RESEARCH PREPARATION RULES
(The specifics of preparation for the microbiological study of feces are described below in the relevant section)
Preconditions for feces research:
Fecals are picked up in a clean container (enough 15 g). The faeces must be delivered to the laboratory and examined no later than 8-12 hours after bowel movements. It is necessary to store faeces for study at 3-5 oC (in the refrigerator). Freezing is not allowed. A loose container is not allowed. Write your name, initials and year of birth on a container of faeces. If you take feces on the eggs of worms and co-program can be taken in one container.
To analyze feces for hidden blood, you have to:
- Explore feces obtained after involuntary bowel movements. 3 days before the test exclude meat, liver, fish, greens, vegetables, tomatoes and other products containing iron. Stop taking drugs (iron,containing, ascorbic acid, aspirin, etc.).
Research is not recommended:
Within 2 weeks after instrumental studies of the gastrointestinal tract or medical procedures (colonoscopy, rectoromanoscopy, bowel cleansing with closure, etc.). women during menstruation. Bleeding from hemorrhoids, hematuria or after excessive exposure during bowel movements. With impurities of urine or secretion of the genitals. It is recommended to examine feces three times, while each time samples should be taken from two different places of feces mass. Fecals are collected in the amount of no more than 1/3 of the volume of the container. The container with faeces must be delivered within 2 hours of receiving the biomaterial.
RULES FOR PREPARING FOR URINE EXAMINATION
Careful toilet external genitalia: women: before collecting urine, a gynecological tampon is injected into the vagina. It is not recommended to do a urine test during menstruation (optimally - 2 days after its end). Men: a careful toilet of the outer genitals with a hole in the head of the penis. Lying patients are pre-emancipated by a weak solution of potassium manganese (or its substitute). You can't howly it! In infants, after a thorough toilet genitals, it is desirable to collect urine in the urine. Urine squeezed out of diapers cannot be investigated! Urine is collected in a special container or clean glassware. To increase the reliability of the results, it is not recommended to do several urine tests in one day.
The container with urine should contain the surname, initials and year of birth.
General urine test:
Urine is collected in the morning on an empty stomach immediately after sleep. Collect only morning urine, taken in the middle of urination, as it is more concentrated, and with it removed pathological elements collected in the kidneys and urinary tracts overnight. From a long catheter that has been used for a long time, urine for research cannot be taken! "It is not recommended to consume alcohol, spicy, salty foods, as well as foods that change the color of urine (e.g. beets, carrots); , clean, well washed from cleaning and disinfectants plastic or glass container (optimally: sterile disposable container for urine), volume of at least 10 ml, which is tightly closed with a lid. begin to release ammonia, absorb glucose, which leads to a change in the pH environment. In addition, bile pigments contained in urine begin to break down in the light).
Urine analysis, according to Nechiporenko:
The purpose of the analysis is to identify the hidden inflammatory process in the urinary system and to determine the number of formal elements of blood (leukocytes, red blood cells) and cylinders (protein clots or cellular elements). Previously, do not forget about the careful toilet external genitals (elements of inflammation of the ovaries and external genitals can get into the urine, which will complicate the correct diagnosis). For the study, it is necessary to collect the average part of the morning portion of urine (approximately 50 ml) in a clean, dry plastic or glass container, which is tightly covered with a lid.
RULES FOR PREPARATION FOR MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH
Microbiological research. General requirements
As a rule, manipulation is carried out by medical personnel.
Additional conditions for collecting materials for microbiological research
Just before sampling milk, you need to carefully process the hands and breasts with soap, and then 70% alcohol or vodka. Before sampling the material, it is recommended to massage dense areas of the breasts. The first few drops of milk should be detatonized and disposed of. After that, it is necessary to stretch the milk in two sterile plastic or glass containers (separately for the left and right breasts). Containers must be signed: specify the surname, initials, year of birth and specify in what container, from which breast milk. Dairy tanks are tightly covered with lids, packed in separate, clean disposable bags and delivered to the laboratory.
The flugm for general analysis is collected by the patient on his own in the morning before eating in a specially prepared sterile container, which is closed by the lid. Before spraying, the patient should thoroughly rinse his mouth with boiled milk, remove saliva from his mouth and mucus from the nose. The collected sputum should not be present impurities of saliva and secretion of nasogoglox. The patient should be deeply unclear through the mouth and then make a lengthy repash. The resulting sputum spits in the container (repeat several times if necessary). If the material cannot be harvested, before taking sputum it is necessary to inhale a warm 10% solution of sodium chloride (10 grams of food salt per 1 liter of boiled water) or a solution containing 150 g of sodium chloride (food salt) and 10 g of sodium bicarbonate (food soda) per liter of water.
Material from the ziva:
The smear smear is collected on an empty stomach or not earlier than 3-4 hours after eating.
All medications and procedures (general and local) are cancelled until the material is collected (after 6-8 hours).
Do not wash the nasal passages before taking smears.
Material from the wound / bubbles, boils:
Before taking the material, the skin around the wound should be treated with alcohol or any other antiseptic. Necrotic masses, detritus and ply are removed with a sterile cloth. From an undisclosed wound, the material is collected with a syringe with a wide needle. The selected material is transferred to a sterile test vent with a transport environment. From the detected wounds the material is taken by a sterile tampon in circular motions from the center to the periphery of the wound surface / from bubbles, sours, boils.
Material from the vagina / cervical canal:
Sexual intercourse should be excluded within three days. For three days before the material is taken, douche and use vaginal candles, ointments, tampons should be excluded. 3 hours before the material is taken, you should refrain from urinating. During menstruation and for three days after its completion it is forbidden to pass the material.
Material from the urethra:
Refrain from sexual intercourse and ejaming for three days.
Secret prostate material:
24 hours before the material is collected, it is necessary to exclude heat effects on the genital area (bath, sauna, etc.).
The material is collected by the patient independently in a sterile container.
Feces for pathogenic flora (bowel dysbacteriosis):
The faeces are collected by the patient himself. The research material is collected in a sterile dry container with a wide neck or in a special industrial container. Feces in dysbacteriosis are collected before treatment with antibacterial, chemotherapy drugs, pre- and probiotics (if this is not possible, then only 2-3 days after the withdrawal of drugs). 2-3 days before the study should exclude alcohol, dairy and other products that enhance the fermentation processes in the intestines. 3-4 days before the reception of the material it is necessary to stop the introduction of rectal candles and enema, as well as the consumption of laxatives, castors and petroleum products, barium (during X-ray examination). - It is advisable to examine feces no earlier than 2 days after X-ray examination using contrast substances. Studies should be carried out before performing rectoromanoscopy and other diagnostic manipulations in the bowel and stomach. Collect the morning portion of feces (don't collect faeces from the toilet bowl). Feces are collected on a sterile surface: for example, on dense, unsaturated water, sterile paper (houses with hot iron and rolled iron inside) or in a pot or vessel (pre-rinse well with soap and water sponge and wash again with tap water, then pour boiling water and cool). Do not treat the vessel with disinfectants! The faeces are taken from the average serving in the amount of no more than 1/3 of the volume of the container. Cover the container tightly with a lid, pack it in a clean disposable bag. The container must contain the name, initials, year of birth, date and time of collection of material. The faeces should be delivered to the laboratory as soon as possible, but no later than 8-12 hours after bowel movements. Store the material at 3-5 oC (in the fridge). Do not freeze the material. A loose container is not allowed.
Don't take urine from linen or sauce. Before the test, the patient must conduct a thorough toilet of external genitals (women should close the entrance to the vagina with cotton wool or hygienic tampon). For bacterial examination, the average portion of urine is selected (optional in the morning). The urine will be put in a sterile container. It is recommended to deliver urine to the laboratory within 2 hours, storage is allowed at a temperature of 2-6oD no more than 2-3 hours.
PREPARATION FOR MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF DERMATOPHITIS AND MYCELIUM FUNGI
The material must be chosen by a doctor. Within 7 days it is necessary to stop taking anti-drug drugs. After 3 days, local treatment (ointments, paints, etc.) should be stopped.
of skin and nails pre-washed with homemade soap, dried in the air.
Skin In a sharp process, take the skin scales to the periphery of the focus and blister tires. In the chronic process - from the surface of the whole
Hair from the hearth aloud take short, broken, twisted
hair; hair 5-10 mm long with a whitish lid at the root; long, seemingly powdery white hair.
Nails The struck edge of the nail is cut by an alcohol-containing razor or sterile scalpel, all the cut pieces
Samples are placed in any sterile container (urine sampling tank, Eppendorf-type tube, petri dishes with a diameter of 30 mm).
Preparing the patient for the study of demodicosis (in the presence of demodex mite)
Wash with soap and water for 3 days before analysis. Use cosmetics. Use ointment less than 10 days before the procedure.
Rules for the selection of material for biopsy for the study of N. pylori
A biopsy of the material for the release of N. pylori should be obtained before the onset of antibiotic therapy or before the appointment of a new antibiotic regimen (with the ineffectiveness of previous treatment). Before the biopsy for sowing it is recommended to stop taking proton pump inhibitors, temporal preparations and antibiotics for 14 days. Taking a biopsy from the stomach mucosa for bacteriological study on N. pylori does not exclude other diagnostic methods (e.g. rapid urease test or histological study). The negative result of the express test of urease or other methods of diagnosis N. pylori does not exclude the possibility of issing this pathogen bacteriological method.
To increase the sensitivity of the method (probability of detection of N. pylori) during the endoscopic examination two samples of biopsies from the anthrax of the stomach (2-3 cm from the stomach goalkeeper along the front and back walls) and two - from the stomach body (10 cm from the cardia on a large curvature). The biopsy is performed in places with the most pronounced hyperemia and swelling. Taking the material from the bottom of ulcers and erosion, as well as from their edges, is a mistake, as in these areas there are no epithelial cells that provide adhesion and colonization of N. pylori.
Storage and transportation of materials for primary sowing
Four biopsies are immediately placed in the transport jar. If the time from the reception of the material to the moment of delivery to the microbiological laboratory does not exceed 6 hours, a sterile tin, which is tightly closed, from 0.5-1 ml of phosphate-salt buffer is used.
If delivery takes 6-48 hours, commercial transport environments are used as a transport environment (e.g. Roortagerm pylori, BioMerieux, France). Samples are stored and transported at 4 degrees Celsius in a light-protected location (container).
If necessary, long-term storage biopts (up to 6 months) can be stored in 20-25% glycerin broth at -70 degrees Celsius, but in this case the viability of N. pylori and the probability of a positive result of bacteriological studies are reduced.